Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Cost-volume-profit (CVP) relationships and analysis

Cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis is one the most powerful tools that managers have at their command. It helps them understand the interrelationship between cost, volume, and profit in an organization by focusing on interactions between the following five elements:
  1. Prices of products
  2. Voume or level of activity
  3. Per unit variable cost
  4. Total fixed cost
  5. Mix of products sold
Contribution margin per unit is the excess of unit selling price over unit variable costs and the amount each unit sold contributes toward
  1. Covering fixed costs and
  2. Providing operating profits
Formula:              CM per unit = Unit selling price – unit variable costs
Contribution margin ratio is the percentage of contribution margin to total sales. This ratio is computed as follows:
                               CM ratio = Contribution Margin / Sales
The CM ratio is very useful in that it shows how the contribution margin will be affected by a given peso change in total sales. For instance, if a company’s CM ratio is 35%, it means that for each peso increase in sales, total contribution margin will increase by P0.35. Net income likewise will increase by P0.35 assuming that there are no changes in fixed costs. 
Break-even point (unit) = Total Fixed Costs / Contribution Margin per unit
Break-even point (pesos) = Total Fixed Costs
                                                1 – Variable Costs or CM %
Break-even sales for multi-products firm (combined units) = Total Fixed Costs / Weighted Average Contribution Margin per unit 
Weighted Contribution Margin per unit = Unit CM x No. of units / mix + Unit CM x No. of units / mix / Total number of units per Sales Mix 
Break-even sales for multi-products firm (combined pesos) = Total Fixed Costs / Weighted CM ratio 
Weighted CM ratio = Total Weighted CM (P) / Total Weighted Sales (P) 
Target sales volume to earn a desired amount of profit.
This is the amount of sales needed to earn a desired amount of profit.
The equation that may be used to compute for this follows:
Sales (units) = Total Fixed Cost + Desired Profit / Contribution Margin per unit 
Sales (pesos) = Total Fixed Cost + Desired Profit / Contribution Margin Ratio
 Margin of Safety (MS) 
This is the excess of actual or budgeted sales over break-even sales and indicates the amount by which sales could decrease before losses are incurred.
Margin of Safety Ratio 
Once the margin of safety is determined, the MS ratio may be computed as follows:
MS ratio = Margin of Safety (P) / Actual or Budgeted Sales 
How is operating leverage computed? What is its significance? 
The potential effect of the risk that sales will fall short of planned levels, as influenced by the relative proportion of fixed to variable manufacturing costs, can be measured by operating leverage. Operating leverage is the ratio of the contribution margin to profit. Assume the following data :
                                                                                2011                   2012                    Change
Sales                                                                      P180,000             P195,000       P15,000
Variable costs                                                         84,000                91,000             7,000
Contribution margin                                           96,000             104,000              8,000
Fixed costs                                                                60,000               60,000                      0
Profit                                                                          36,000               44,000              8,000
Operating leverage = Contribution margin / Profit
                                                P96,000/P36,000 = 2.667 
Operating leverage of 2.667 means that since  sales increased 8.33 percent (P15,000 / P180,000) from 2011 to 2012, profits should increase by 22.22 percent (2.667 x 8.33%). A quick calculation demonstrates that profit has increased by 22.22 percent (P8,000/P36,000).
A higher value for operating leverage indicates a higher risk in the sense that a given change in sales will have a relatively greater impact on profits. When sales volume is strong, it is desirable to have a high level of leverage, but when sales begin to fall, a lower level of leverage is preferable. Each firm chooses the level of operating leverage that is consistent with its competitive strategy. For example, a firm with dominant position in its market might choose a high level of leverage to exploit its advantage. In contrast, a weaker firm might choose the less risky low-leverage strategy.

Moreover, the CVP analysis can be done through the Income Statement approach to  avoid memorizing of formulas.


Capital budgeting is the process of planning and controlling investments for long-term projects and programs.
The costs that are considered in capital budgeting analysis include:
  1. Avoidable cost – cost that may be eliminated by ceasing an activity or by improving efficiency.
  2. Common cost – cost that is shared by all options and is not clearly allocable to any one of them.
  3. Weighted-average cost of capital – is the weighted average of the interest cost of debt (net of tax) and the implicit cost of equity capital to be invested in long-term assets. It represents a required minimum return of a new investment to prevent dilution of owners’ interest.
  4. Deferrable or Postponable cost – cost that may be shifted to the future with little or not effect on current operation.
  5. Fixed cost – cost that does not vary with the level of activity within the relevant range.
  6. Imputed cost – cost that does not entail a specified peso outlay formally recognized by the accounting system, but its nevertheless relevant to establishing the economic reality analyzed in the decision-making process.
  7. Incremental cost – is the difference in cost resulting from selecting one option instead of another.
  8. Opportunity cost – is the benefit forgone by not selecting the best alternative use of scarce resources.
  9. Relevant cost – future differential cost that vary with the action.
  10. Sunk cost – cost that cannot be avoided because expenditure or an irrevocable decision to incur the cost has been made.
  11. Taxes – tax consequences of an investment. 
Net investment is the net outlay, or gross cash requirement, minus cash recovered from the trade or sale of existing assets, with any necessary adjustments for applicable tax consequences.
Net cash flow is the economic benefit or cost, period by period, resulting from the investment.
Economic life is the time period over which the benefits of the investment proposal are expected to be attained, as distinguished from the physical or technical life of the asset involved.
Depreciable life is the period used for accounting and tax purposes over which cost is to be systematically and rationally allocated. It is based upon permissible or standard guidelines and may have no particular relevance to economic life.
Techniques that may be applied in evaluating capital investment proposals:
Discounted cash flow approaches:
Discounted or Internal rate of return. This is an interest rate computed such that the net present value (NPV) of the investment is zero. Hence the present value of the expected cash outflows equals the present value of the expected cash inflows.
Investment = Annual cash inflow x Present value factor
Net Present Value – this is the difference between the present value of the estimated net cash inflows and the present value of the net cash outflows.
Excess Present Value or Profitability Index – this is the ratio of the present value of the future net cash inflows to the present value of the initial investment.
PV Index = Present value of Cash Inflows Present value of Cash Outflows
Nondiscounted Cash Flow Approaches
Payback Period – this is the number of years required to complete the return of the original investment. It is computed as follows:
Payback period = Investment Annual cash inflows
Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) – this is the increase in accounting net income divided by the required investment. This is computed as follows:
ARR = Average cash inflow – Depreciation
Under the time-adjusted rate of return capital budgeting technique, it is assumed that cash flows are reinvested at the rate earned by the investment.
The net present value capital budgeting technique can be used when cash flows from period to period are uniform and uneven.
Time-adjusted rate of return is a capital budgeting techniques that assumed that cash flows are reinvested at the rate actually earned by the investment.
The net present value and internal rate of return methods of capital budgeting are superior to the payback method in that they: consider the time value of money.
The payback method measure: how quickly investment pesos may be recovered.
The capital budgeting method that divides a project’s annual incremental net income by the initial investment is the : Simple (or accounting) rate of return method.
The relevance of a particular cost to a decision is determined by: potential effect on the decision.
The term that refers to costs incurred in the past that are not relevant to a future decision is sunk cost.

Friday, February 22, 2013


Under PFRS 9, using the effective interest method or scientific method or simply known "interest method" is required in the amortization of discount on bonds payable, premium on bonds payable and bond issue cost.
This method differentiate two kinds of interest rate, namely the nominal rate known as coupon or stated rate and effective rate known as the yield rate or market rate.
The effective rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated cash future payments through the expected life of the bonds payable or when appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount of the bonds payable.
When bonds are sold at face value, the effective rate and the nominal rate are the same. But when bonds are sold at a premium, the effective rate is lower than the nominal rate. And when the bonds are sold at a discount, the effective rate is higher than the nominal rate.
Under this method, the effective interest expense is computed by multiplying the effective rate by the carrying amount of the bonds. The carrying amount of the bonds changes every year as the amount of premium or discount is amortized periodically.
Under the effective amortization of discount, the interest expense is higher than the interest paid. The difference between the interest expense and interest paid is the discount amortization which is added in the carrying value or amount of the bonds.
While, the effective amortization of premium, the interest expense is lower than the interest paid. The difference between the interest paid and interest expense is the premium amortization which is deducted in the carrying value or amount of the bonds.
Interest expense is determined by multiplying the effective interest rate by the carrying amount of the bonds. Interest paid is computed by multiplying the nominal rate by the face value of the bonds. Actually, it can be presented using the schedule of amortization table.
The market price or issue price of bonds payable is equal to the present value of the principal bond liability plus the present value of future interest payments using the effective or market rate of interest.
The present value of the principal bond liability is equal to the face value of the bond multiplied by the present value of 1 factor at the effective rate for a number of interest periods.
The present value of the future interest payments is equal to the periodic nominal interest multiplied by the present value of an ordinary annuity of 1 factor at the effective rate for a number of interest periods.
Under bond issue cost, PFRS 9 provides that "transaction costs" that are directly attributable to the issue of a financial liability shall be included in the initial measurement of the financial liability.
Transaction costs are defined as fees and commissions paid to agents, advisers, brokers and dealers, levies by regulatory agencies and securities exchange, and transfer taxes and duties. Clearly, transaction cost include bond issue costs.
Bond issue costs will increase discount on bonds payable and will decrease premium on bonds payable.
Under the effective interest method, bond issued cost must be "lumped" with the discount on bonds payable and "netted" against the premium on bonds payable.
The effective rate cannot be computed algebraically but by means of trial and error or the "interpolation process".
The calculation of the effective rate requires the use of mathematical table of present value of a single payment and present value of an ordinary annuity. Actually, the effective rate can easily be determined through the use of a financial calculator.
Reference: Financial Accounting Volume 2 2012 edition - Effective Interest Method by Conrado T. Valix, et. al

Tuesday, February 5, 2013


In corporate liquidation, a Statement of Affairs is prepared for the corporation to provide information about the current financial position of the company and aids the trustee in liquidating the corporation. It is prepared under a quitting-concern assumption and presents the classifications of assets and liabilities as follows:


Assets pledged to fully secured creditors – the realizable value of the asset is equal to, or more than the secured claim (secured liability).

Assets pledged to partially secured creditors –the realizable value of the asset is less than the secured claim (secured liability).

Free assets – assets not used as security for the payment of any liabilities and available for distribution to unsecured liabilities. Total free assets -  Free assets plus the excess, if any, of the assets pledged to fully secured creditors.

***Net Free assets - is the Total free assets less the Unsecured liabilities with priority.

***Estimated deficiency - Unsecured liabilities without priority  less Net Free assets.

***Estimated deficiency rate - Estimated deficiency divide by Unsecured liabilities without priority


Unsecured liabilities with Priority – are liabilities specified in the Insolvency law which must be settled before any secured debts (e.g., administrative expenses of the receiver, accrued salaries, wages, taxes, etc.) 

Fully-secured liabilities – the realizable value of the pledged asset is at least equal to the amount of the claim

Partially secured liabilities – the realizable value of the pledged asset is less than the amount of the claim. Every partially secured claim has a secured portion and unsecured portion, the latter being covered by free assets based on a recovery percentage.

Unsecured liabilities without priority – liabilities for which the creditor has no lien on any asset of the corporation. These can be recovered pro-rata by the free assets when there is asset deficiency.

The Statement of Affairs is prepared as the start of corporate liquidation of the company.